Altruistic, 

Re-Establishing Altruism As A Viable Social Norm

MEMBERS' 
 
 
F2F LOGS WIKI WWWROOT
ABOUT COMMUNITY DIRECTORY DOWNLOADS IDEAS PROJECTS
ALTRUISM LINK_US_IN WHAT_WE_DO WHY_WE_IGNORE_MONEY WORKING_WITH_US
ALTRUISTIC_THINKING CALENDAR EVOLUTION TESTIMONIES WHY_THERE_IS_NO_MASTERPLAN
COSTLY_SIGNALLING KIN_SELECTION MULTI-LEVEL_SELECTION RECIPROCAL SOCIETY
SHORTCUTS...Close this
» Altruistic Economics
» Internet Gift Economy
» Altruism . . .
» Consumerism
» Depression
» Escapism
» Friend2Friend
» Give Away Project
» Technology
» Unwelcome Guests
» Wikipedia+

SEARCH BY KEYWORD
Directory Search
Website Search
NEW LAST MONTHClose this

[No new downloads added]
[No new pages added]

MOST POPULAR PAGES
» Submit A Site (4562996)
» Bot Fodder (3503031)
» What is Altruism? (430248)
» Homepage (419204)
» Directory (274644)
» Bangla Typing (232527)
» Downloads (210173)
» Technology (192376)
» Altruistic Economics (147562)
» Search Downloads (135177)
» Escapism (135088)
» ¿Qué es el altruismo? (98789)
» Psychology (84509)
» Resizing Hard Disks (81790)
» Idea of Altruism (76523)
» About Us (69484)
» Ekushey FAQ (69390)
» GiveAway Project (64482)

SITE MAP
» Page List
German English

Multi-level Selection Theory

Multi-level Selection Theory explains the evolution of altruism by considering the action of natural selection not on an individual but on a group level. Consider, for example, an animal population made up of warring tribes. This would entail two levels of selection - between groups and within groups.

Within any one tribe, altruistic behaviour would be deselected by the dominance of selfish behaviour. However, if altruistic behaviour increased the overall fitness of the group, then the groups with the highest proportion of altruists would outperform the more selfish ones. Under appropriate conditions, this alternative selection pressure could dominate the disadvantage of altruism for the individual. Multi-level selection doesn't only occur on these two levels, since animals may be a part of various groups - close family group, extended family, tribe etc. We can consider evolutionary selection to happen on each level simultaneously.

This explanation of altruism finds more evidence from anthropological studies which support viewing of groups of humans as adaptive units. According to Sober and Wilson,   "the concept of human groups as adaptive units may be supported not only by evolutionary theory but by the bulk of empirical information on human social groups in all cultures around the world."

Although the case for the existance of multi-level selection (MLS) is quite compelling, this does not in itself provide evidence for MLS as an evolutionary mechanism of developing altruism, which is only one of many behaviour patterns that could evolve to increase the survival fitness of groups. Multi-level selection may be supplemented or replaced by other forms of intergroup interaction (e.g. 'Social control') that are more evolutionarily stable. It therefore seems likely that a proper understanding of the relationship between MLS and altruism requires consideration of other mechanisms such as kin selection and reciprocal altruism.


Francis McAndrew: (2002) New Evolutionary Perspectives on Altruism - Multilevel-Selection and Costly-Signaling Theories, Current directions in Psychological Science 11 (Issue 2) pp.79-82

| |   | | | Site Map                
Except where otherwise noted, this site is
licensed under a Creative Commons License
          Reach us at: